Saturday, May 23, 2020
The facebook and the open source movement are both social sites where people share information. Facebook started in 2003 in Harvard University out of a love affair which went sour among two student partners, where a male partner hack the database of the institution trying to tarnish the name of the female partner (Harris 25). Social network movie is about a website facebook which came about due to a lawsuit directed by David Fincher and it was released on 1/10/2010. It explains how people share social and personal information. It is popular among the student body and they call it Thefacebook and due to the issue which surrounded the social network movie, they later avoided the courts and called it Harvard gentlemen. All these sites were used for socialization and especially the social movie spiced by the YouTube movies (Harris 25). There is instant messaging in facebook where some one can communicate with another person with due privacy and confidentiality through inbox. There is the use of Google talk which is instant in nature and the online text chat. You can type a message that everyone else can read and respond accordingly by posting. With the open source, there is no Google talk and the open chat though both have some privacy and confidentiality depending on how it is used (Harris 27). Facebook is growing very fast as a social network all over the world and it will affect the culture of many people negatively. Facebook is believed to be used mostly by young people (youths) to discuss their own issues; hence degrading their culture and adopting other cultures through addiction and influence by others (Harris 30). These values will affect the future technology negatively if the site is not used for research purposes. The facebook is believed to be used mostly for love and sexual affairs; hence it has been associated with people who are idle, prostitutes and immoral people. There is lack of creativity and innovation for those using facebook because their main agenda is to socialize only. This therefore means that, there will be no development and advancement in technology (Harris 31). The open source movement and social network movie is free for everybody since it articulates on different issues affecting the society and official information is passed through this site (Harris 32). The open source technology is used in the back office where IBM dominates and it is fairly easy to use and understand than the facebook. There more development and innovation in the open source movement because of the coming up of Microsoft, Linux where the oracles which has dominated the universe for its middleware and applications (Harris 35). Works cited Harris, Mark. Inventing Facebook. New York: MIT Press. 2010 (3): 25-35
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
In the 1960s segregation and discrimination is still relevant to the citizens of the United States. The citizens make an implication that those who are African American think that society only responds positively to the actions of the White Americans. This leads to African Americans conforming and giving society what they want by changing their style of speech and appearance, this is called cultural assimilation. In Act II, Scene I of A Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry interprets the concept of cultural assimilation with the actions of George as he arrives and unintentionally interrupts Beneatha and WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"AfricanÃ¢â¬ performance. This scene signifies the struggle between trying to assimilate into white culture and keeping the African heritage alive which shows the segregation not just between African Americans and Caucasians but also between African Americans. During this time period being an African American means that you did not compare to the White Americans which also means that African Americans are not accepted by society. In order to fix this issue blacks begin to alter themselves to fit in with what society considers acceptable. In Act II, Scene I of A Raisin in the Sun Walter and Beneatha are dancing to an African song which soon gets interrupted by George. After the interruption Beneatha reveals that she has cut her hair and it sparks an argument between the two. Beneatha calls George an Ã¢â¬Å"assimilationistÃ¢â¬ He responds with a nasty tone and ends hisShow MoreRelatedA Raisin Of The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Raisin in the sun by Lorraine Hansberry there are three major female characters represent three different spectrums of their lives. A Raisin in the Sun a number of social issues are both explicitly and subtly exemplified through out the characters experiences and relationships. First, Hansb erry introduce Beneatha who is twenty year old college student with dreams of becoming a doctor in her life. Second, the author mention Ruth as a soft character in the story that wants to become wealthy andRead MoreA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry2035 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLorraine HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s A Raisin in the Sun is a remarkable play written in 1959 by an African American author about an African American family. This time period was in the early days of the modern awakening of civil rights awareness. It was a timely play challenging the then current stereotypical view of a black family by depicting a realistic portrayal of a specific black family with aspirations, hopes, dreams, dignity, and ambition as would be expected from all families regardless of race. TheRead MoreA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesas a person. Walter Lee Younger is a man that goes through many different character changes, which cause conflict amongst the oth er characters. Once he goes through his rite of passage, he is able to fix his flaws and mature. In Lorraine HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s play, A Raisin in the Sun, characterization is used to portray that one must experience a rite of passage in order to mature. Walter Lee Younger starts off the play as a man who is selfish and immature, willing to put money before family. He is characterizedRead MoreA Raisin Of A Sun By Lorraine Hansberry2114 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages July 26, 2015 A Raisin in a Sun A dream is what a person strive for to achieve success in their lives. Langston Hughes, ask in Montage of a Dream Deferred, Ã¢â¬Å"What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the Sun?Ã¢â¬ A Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry is mainly about a family dream to do better for themselves. All the characters in this story has hopes and dreams. The problem with that is that everyone has their own individual dream which cause conflict within the familyRead MoreA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry A Raisin in the Sun is a play written by Lorraine Hansberry, which debuted on broad way in 1959. They play takes place sometime in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, a time period wrought with social issues which were ignored by the general public. The play concentrates on the Younger family; Ruth, Travis, Walter Lee, Beneatha, and Lena, the family head. The events of the play take place over the course of only a few weeks, where-in the Younger family is to receive a largeRead MoreA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry544 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pages A raisin in the sun is a book that explains the life of a family that is in hard times but some how gets through it. The Younger family is at the bottom of the ladder when it comes to economic status this affects the whole family and dreams and values, but the one thing they are good at are arguing and keeping their dreams alive by being a family and loving and caring for one another when nobody else does. The book a raisin in the sun written by Lorraine Hansberry is about a family that areRead MoreA Raisin Of The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLorraine Hansberry, a female playwright and black activist, spent almost all of her life dealing with American racism, poverty, and lack of social mobility. As a person who witnessed the daily struggles of African Americans, Hansberry wanted to expose the hypocrisy in the idea that America was the land of equal opportunity. As a result, in 1959, Hansberry wrote the play, A Raisin in the Sun, which details the Youngers, an African American family, who experienced racism, poverty, and the lack of socialRead MoreA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry?605 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesLorraine Hansberry, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"A Raisin in The SunÃ¢â¬ , was born in Chicago, Illinois. Hansberry was the youngest of four children. Her father Carl Augustus Hansberry was a prominent real estate broker and her mother Louise Perry was a stay home mother. She grew up on the south side of Chicago in the Woodlawn neighborhood. Later the family moved into an all-white neighborhood, where they experienced racial discrimination. Hansberry attended a predominantly white public school while her parentsRead MoreA Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry774 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMany can see the appeal of the playÃ¢â¬ A Raisin in the SunÃ¢â¬ by Lorraine Hansberry because it is telling how much the Younger family wants the American dream, the better life that each character wants are different from each other. The family wants the insurance money to start their dreams, the money that would not have been available if not for the death of the head of the family. Walter Lee Younger American dream is all about materialism and what he can get right now. He has the notion of a self-madeRead MoreLorraine Hansberry s A Raisin Of The Sun1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Raisin in the SunÃ¢â¬ is about the Younger Family who live in a small apartment in Chicago. The family is torn apart as every member has different dreams and goals, yet Mama and her daughter-in-law Ruth desperately attempt to hold the family all together. In both the movie and the play, the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams remain the same. Mama wants her family to get along and she wants to purchase a house. Her son, Walter, wants the life insurance money from his father to invest in a liquor store to achieve his
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Video games really are a excellent leisure time exercise, but they can drain your pocket in a flash. Doing exercises some knowledge prior to you making any future personal computer recreation transactions and take notice of the was created on this web page. It will conserve you dollars and permit you to buy a great deal a lot more online games. We will write a custom essay sample on Yepi game or any similar topic only for you Order Now We regularly see that video games can be addicting. Youthful children spent a good deal of their personal quantity of time In taking part In It on the expense with their raining, discover hrs In addition to family obligations. In addition, taking pleasure In online video clip games constantly can Isolate kids from friendships, shorten their check out and create significant healthcare problems. In case you are the sort of Individual who sacrifice considerable time enjoying online games with no performing anything at all, after that it is really some thing which you need to worry about. A great deal of on the world wide web players do not attention significantly about getting on radical modifications inside of their habits. As a result we undoubtedly eve mentioned several negatives of on-line movie video games. In addition, if you presently have a game that you enjoy, you could want to search for its sequels. Popular online games often end up with a number of sequels, which maintain the topic of the sport, whilst including some new potent alternatives and functions to it. Locating free of charge online flash online games on the world wide web is simple, there are some websites that have a assortment of flash games, and the games are classified and structured in accordance to the preferences of the consumers. Hence, the choices of selecting the correct enjoyable filled flash games are maximized for the gamers in this sort of sites and it is Just a matter of clicking the proper sport you want to perform. Hyperemia. Com By Christian deal of their personal quantity of time in taking part in it on the expense with their training, discover hrs in addition to family obligations. In addition, taking pleasure in online video clip games constantly can isolate kids from friendships, shorten their individual who sacrifice considerable time enjoying online games with no performing How to cite Yepi game, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Business Entrepreneurs Critical Mistakes? Answer: Introducation The cash flow management for the business is the process of analyzing, optimizing and monitoring the total amount of cash receipts reduced by cash payments. The net cash flow is the important measure for measuring the financial health of any business (Bhandari and Iyer 2013). Benefits of the cash flow management It helps in planning for unforeseen events that may be faced by the company in near future. It helps in analyzing the liquidity of the business and monitoring the cash inflows and cash outflows for better future planning. Three components of the cash flow planning Operating cash flow it is cash flow that is generated from the internal operations Investing cash flow it is internally generated from the non-operating activities Financing cash flow it is the cash from and to the external sources like shareholders, investors and lenders (Call, Chen and Tong 2013). Purpose of the cash flow planning Purpose of the cash flow planning is to deliver the information regarding the gross payments and gross receipts of the company for the specific time period. The net changes in the cash flow are equal to the cash and cash equivalent figure reported under the balance sheet of the company (Farshadfar and Monem 2013). Estimation required for preparing the cash flow budget Various estimations required while preparing the cash budgets are Estimated inflows of cash for the time frame Estimated outflows of cash for the time frame Estimation of the companys future cash position Cash flow equation Estimated cash inflows + Estimated sales Estimated cash outflows = Ending cash balance Largest component of cash outflow in retail business Cost of the goods to be sold is the largest cash outflow component in the retail business. The retail companies purchase the stock for the purpose of resale and the cost of these stocks are referred as the cost of goods sold. Therefore, it is the largest component. main financial statements Balance sheet Cash flow statement [Being computer purchased through cheque] Resolving issue regarding supply Look for any other supply who can supply within the time frame or Place bigger order for covering up the shortfall or Resolving the issue through communicating with the supplier Improving the cash flow of the business To improve the cash flow in short term period the company can Reduce credit period that is offered to the buyers Ask the supplier for allowing longer payment period Offer discounts on loans held with the borrower (Lee and Parker 2013) Financial report analysis Analysis of the financial report assists in comparing the financial data over the period of time. It further helps in analysing the following Liquidity of the business that is the monetary worth of the company on specific day Efficiency of the business that is how efficiently is can turns its inventory to revenue Profitability of the business that is ability of the company to face competition. Cash receipts from sale of the services and goods Revenue $ 200,000.00 Cost of goods sold $ 150,000.00 Gross profit $ 50,000.00 Operating expenses $ 100,000.00 Net income $ (50,000.00) Cash flow Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Opening cash position $ (600.00) $ (50,420.00) $ (48,957.00) Total receipts $ 203,020.00 $ 4,680.00 $ 3,716.00 Total payments $ 252,840.00 $ 3,217.00 $ 5,960.00 Net cash flow $ (49,820.00) $ 1,463.00 $ (2,244.00) Closing cash position $ (50,420.00) $ (48,957.00) $ (51,201.00) Purchasing or redecorating decision Choosing of project Both the proposals seem good for the improvement of the company as both can be used to increase the revenue. If with the new wood fire pizza is sold at ($ 15.00 - $ 4.50) = $ 10.50, then the total income will be (150*12*$ 10.50) = $ 18,900. Therefore the sales revenue will be increased by 9.8%. On the contrary the revenue can be increased by 20% if the establishment is restored. Therefore, the brothers shall choose the option of restoring the establishment (Coates 2014). The shareholders will be convinced as the 2nd option will give them more returns on their investment. Consulting for taking decision regarding redecorating or purchasing the equipment The decision shall be taken after discussing the matter with the people who have wide experience regarding this, for example, the people who have wide knowledge of hospitality. Further, various accounting are required to be prepared before taking the final decision. Necessary records Necessary records required to maintain are the files required for paying taxes and the details of financial working of the business. Other records required to be maintained are company name, working dates on restaurant, invoices, net and gross amount paid and any deductions from gross amount. Importance of budget Budget assists in analysing whether the company will gain benefit in the future or not. It recognizes the business part that can be improved and reveals the amount of money that is projected to exit and enter in the business. It also helps in the following aspects Planning budgets provide the guidelines and roadmap to the management and owners for planning the product prices on the basis of expected manufacturing cost. Further, it helps in keeping the track of resources. Controlling it helps in controlling the expenses of the company. It set the financial objectives towards which the company can work. This in turn, will assist the managers to have control on the cash utilization and expenses. Effect of dates on sales budget preparation The financial year dates generally have an impact on the large companies and small companies as the annual event may generate large amount of revenue or expenses. Generally the important events occur for 1 to 2 months before the end of the financial year. Therefore, the business gets sufficient times for paying all the outstanding dues or collects all the due payments from the customers. Decisions regarding family business Technological recommendations Various technological tools that can be used where accurate financial information and purchase budgets are not available are excel, powerful tools for access with proper controls on data. Further, the workflow tools and data management tools can help in improving the consistency and can highlight the focus areas for the purpose of additional attention. Recommended software As the business is small, they can use the Microcrosoft Excel for maintaining all the financial data (Anderson, Sweeney and Williams 2014). Software they can further use is FactuSo that will help in covering all the commercial records like goods receipts, invoices, remittance, customer order, customer budgets and delivery notes. Advantages of using software Using the software has various advantages like precision and speed of operation and further the real time financial status of the company can be analysed through computerized accounting system (Schorr et al. 2013). Another advantage is that the data has to entered once only and then through pitting up the formula all the calculation are generated automatically. It further minimizes the manual error. The data are kept in up to date version and the computation are accurate as the human errors are avoided. Sales budget analysis Variance analysis Financial Year Budgeted Actual Variance Reason 2007/08 $ 350,000.00 $ 290,000.00 Unfavourable Variance is unfavourable as the actual sale is lower by $ 60,000 as compared to the budget 2008/09 $ 400,000.00 $ 250,000.00 Unfavourable Variance is unfavourable as the actual sale is lower by $ 150,000 as compared to the budget Events to justify the scenarios Sales of the company were low as compared to expectation as it can be seen that the actual revenues were low as compared to the budgeted sales Too high expectations. As it can be seen that the budgeted sales for 2nd year were more than the 1st year whereas the actual sales were lower in 2nd year as compared to 1st. Therefore, it can be said that the expectation regarding sales were high Suppliers may have increased the prices of raw materials which in turn lead ABC Pizza Plaza the unfavourable variance. Adam Smith case Requirements not met by Adam Cash book Through the cash book Adam could maintain the records related to casgh receipts and cash payments Sales records through this Adam could maintain the receipt books, invoice books, documentation of credit card and cash register details (Schiff and Szendi 2014) Bank account it helps in maintaining the deposit books, check books and the bank statements Purchase records it helps in maintaining the petty cash system, invoices, statement for credit card and purchase related documents. Suggested techniques The coffee shop owner can use for improving the accuracy of the budgeting with regard to the beverage stock purchase is the simple technique. Initially, he must prepare the data regarding beverages and drinks that he must purchase on regular basis. Further, through the database he will be able to know the stock of the drinks and beverage and can plan accordingly when to purchase new stock. However, he must avoid using manual system and maintain the data through computerised system. Reference Anderson, D., Sweeney, D. and Williams, T., 2014.Modern business statistics with Microsoft Excel. Nelson Education. Bhandari, S.B. and Iyer, R., 2013. Predicting business failure using cash flow statement based measures.Managerial Finance,39(7), pp.667-676. Call, A.C., Chen, S. and Tong, Y.H., 2013. Are analysts' cash flow forecasts nave extensions of their own earnings forecasts?.Contemporary Accounting Research,30(2), pp.438-465. Coates IV, J.C., 2014. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Financial Regulation: Case Studies and Implications.Yale LJ,124, p.882. Farshadfar, S. and Monem, R., 2013. Further evidence on the usefulness of direct method cash flow components for forecasting future cash flows.The international journal of accounting,48(1), pp.111-133. Lee, T.A. and Parker, R.H. eds., 2013.Towards a theory and practice of cash flow accounting (RLE Accounting)(Vol. 50). psychology. Schiff, A. and Szendi, J., 2014. Helping small business entrepreneurs avoid critical mistakes in QuickBooks accounting software.The Entrepreneurial Executive,19, p.169. Schorr, M., Sylvester, M., Dopf, G., Henrich, D., Liebich, G., Conrad, M., Reccius, A., Klein, M., Hohendorf, M., Roesinger, A. and Soltek, R., 2013.Providing accounting software application as enterprise services. U.S. Patent 8,442,850.
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Martha?S Vineyard Labov Essay 1. 0Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Introduction 1. 1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Martha? s Vineyard Ã¢â¬â where old traditions are still of value Martha? s Vineyard is a small island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, USA. The island has a permanent population of about 6000 inhabitants. It is separated from the mainland by the Atlantic Ocean and there are no big businesses or any McDonald to be found on the island. Here, life is not as hectic as on the mainland and old traditions are still of value. The inhabitants have a way of showing their connection and dedication to their homeland, which is also a way of identifying themselves. This term paper will be about sound changes in connection with social identity. I will examine the innovative study of language variation and change in the islands community, observed and examined by William Labov (1963). I will analyze and discuss the study made by Labov. Labov? s study is based on the characteristic sound pattern discovered while listening to the inhabitants of Martha? s Vineyard. This sound change has a focus on the centralization of diphthongs. Centralization is the phonological change in which a vowel becomes more central than normal (Lawrence Trask 2000 : 53). Diphthong is a vowel sound which is pronounced by quickly moving from one vowel position to another (Deckert, Vickers 2011 : 33). The sound changes made by inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, observed by Labov were: /ay/ as in fight, right and sight and /aw/ as in loud and about. Labov? s observations exposed that the centralized diphthongs only occurred in a particular linguistic context. Some groups used the sound change more than others. The group of fishermen was among these. Labov also observed that some inhabitants purposely did not pronounce the diphthongs differently to people from the mainland. We will write a custom essay sample on Martha?S Vineyard Labov specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Martha?S Vineyard Labov specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Martha?S Vineyard Labov specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Having looked at different social factors, as for example, age, ethnic group and occupation it became obvious that the attitude towards the island was an essential aspect to explain this phenomenon. The decision whether or not to use the island or the mainland pronunciation depended the attitude towards MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, whether or not being positive or negative. Labov named this phenomenon Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ (1963). To understand what Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ is it is important to define the term Ã¢â¬Å"identityÃ¢â¬ . What is identity and how do we identify ourselves? Can there be a connection between identity and speech? In this term paper I will attempt to answer these questions. 2. 0 The study, sociolinguistic pattern and meaning 2. 1 Background knowledge MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard is divided into two parts, which are the up-island and the down-island. By the time Labov made this study, the island had approximately 6000 inhabitants. The majority lived in an area of the down-island which contains of three small towns, called Vineyard Haven, Oak Bluffs and Edgartown. The remaining inhabitants lived in the rural up-island area with only a few villages (Labov 1972: 5). The inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard were divided into four major ethnic groups. The main group was the descendants of old families with English origin. The second major group was descendants of Portuguese origin who migrated from the Azores and the Cap Verde Islands. The third group was descendants of remnant native Americans. The last group consists of inhabitants of various origins, who were of no relevance for this study (Labov 1972: 6). Another group became relevant for this study. This was the group of summer visitors who came in large groups in June and July. There would be around 42. 000 visitors on the island every summer (Labov 1972: 6). It could be a possibility that the summer visitors brought the sound change from the mainland to the island, which would mean that this group would have the major influence on the pronunciation of the diphthongs /ay/ and /aw/ but it becomes clear that the influence of visitors are not as obvious as it might seem, since Labov only mentioned that this group had an indirect influence. To clarify this, it is essential to have a look at the economic situation of the island. In 1960 Marthas Vineyard was the poorest of all countries of Massachusetts and this was not only due to the high unemployment rate in Massachusetts back then (Labov 1972: 27). The islands? major industry was the fishing industry on the up-island. The large-scale of fishing went out of New Bedford on the Grand Banks and as a result it became harder to keep this industry going (Labov 1972: 27). It became almost impossible for the fishermen to make a living from their wages and their families became dependent on two earnings. Another problem forced the economic and psychological pressure. Convenience goods were at a very high price (Labov 1972: 28) and the goods were brought on the island with ferry from the mainland. This transport was expensive and permitted the salesmen to expand the prices of their goods. Some would say that the constantly growing tourism came as a blessing for the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, but at the same time it also became a curse, especially for the fishermen who felt very connected to the island and the traditions connected to it. For them it was difficult to accept the increasing dependence on tourism. The following observations and results are of importance in order to understand the connection between the above mentioned background information and the language variation in this study. 2. 2 Accomplishment by Labov and its meaning for the inhabitants In 1963, as the study of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard was relized, Labov observed a striking way of pronouncing words such a fight, right and sight, and words such as loud and about. This striking ways of pronunciation clearly diverged from the near parts of the mainland (Meyerhoff 2006: 16f. ). The inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard pronounced the diphthongs /ay/ and /aw/ in a more entral position which is a phonological change termed centralization. In order to figure out why many inhabitants used the centralized diphthongs, Labov deliberated an interview schedule in which /ay/ and /aw/ frequently occurred (Labov 1972: 12). Here Labov did not only put his focus on the linguistic aspect but on the social aspect as well. This means th at Labov did not only put focus on the language but furthermore he wanted to examine the reasons for this sound change and in which way it was used in a social context and by whom. Why did some speakers use the centralized diphthongs more than others? This is why this study by Labov is not just of study of linguistics but also counts as a sociolinguistic study (Deckert, Vickers 2011: 1). Labov started asking inhabitants questions concerning their lives on the island. He also recorded them while they were reading lists of words naturally containing /ay/ and /aw/ sounds out loud (Meyerhoff 2006: 17). He interviewed 69 inhabitants of different ages, occupation, ethnic groups and from different geographical distribution. The table underneath is taken from Labov? s study and shows age levels and numbers of inhabitants using the centralized vowels /ay/ and /aw/: Table 1 (Labov 1972: 22) |age |(ay) |(aw) | |75- |25 |22 | |61-75 |35 |37 | |46-60 |62 |44 | |31-45 |81 |88 | |14-30 |37 |46 | Having a look at this table, it appears that inhabitants from the age of thirty-one up to age forty-five frequently tended to centralize the diphthongs. However, inhabitants younger than thirty-one and older than forty-five, did not have a high use of the centralized diphthongs. This means that the sound change could not only be dependent on the age of inhabitants being interviewed. Therefore Labov focused on other social factors which might have an effect on the production of this sound change. He interviewed inhabitants from different parts of residence, hereby people form the up-island as well as people living at the down-island. The statistics shown below demonstrates different cities on MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard. It also shows the numbers of inhabitants from these cities using the centralized diphthongs: Table 2 (Labov 1972: 25) Ã |(ay) |(aw) | |Down-island |35 |33 | |Edgartown |48 |55 | |Oak |33 |10 | |BluffsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | | |Vineyard HavenÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |24 |33 | |Up-islandÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |61 |66 | |Oak |71 |99 | |BluffsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | | |N. 35 |13 | |TisburyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã | | | |West TisburyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |51 |51 | |ChilmarkÃ Ã Ã Ã |100 |81 | |Gay HeadÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã |51 |81 | This table clearly shows that the inhabitants living on the up-island used the sound change more frequently than inhabitants living on the down-island, especially the inhabitants of the town Chilmark. In Chilmark they were shown o have a unique tendency of centralized diphthongs. The up-island was more of a rural area and it was known for its fishing industry. Most fishermen were living and working in Chilmark. The following table shows the centralization by the different occupational groups observed by Labov. . Table 3 (Labov 1972: 26) |Ã |(ay) |(aw) | |Fishermen |100 |79 | |Farmers |32 |22 | |Others |41 |57 | According to this table which shows the usage of centralized diphthong by fishermen, farmers and other occupations, shows it becomes clear that the fishermen were the one group who most frequently made use of centralization. Some of the farmers and people of other occupations also used this sound change but their numbers were strikingly low compared to the numbers of fishermen using the centralization. When comparing the results of all three tables it becomes obvious that the Chilmark fishermen in the middle working age level were using the centralization more frequently than any other groups on the island. However, hereby it is still not revealed why this group of inhabitants at this age and living and working in that one place where the fishing industry still played a big role in the island economy (Labov 1972: 29), were using the sound change more frequently than the other groups of inhabitants. It is central to understand the meaning and importance of the fishing industry for the inhabitants and the island itself to fully understand the interaction of social and linguistic patterns. Most of the fishermen from Chilmark felt deeply connected to the island since most of them were descendants of the old families (Labov 1972: 28). The fishing industry used to be a major part of the economy, before the large-scale fishing went out of New Bedford on the Grand Banks (Labov 1972: 27). The fishermen were proud to be independent, to stand on their own feet and earn their living with their own bare hands. Fishing was an old tradition on this island (Labov 1972: 29) but as an ever-growing number of summer visitors came to the island a big part of the fishing industry moved away and the inhabitants became forced to be more dependent on tourism. Chilmark changed from the traditional fishing industry to modern tourism. Many of the inhabitants accepted but the fishermen had a hard time acknowledging this change (Labov 1972: 28). They made their living from fishing. For these men fishing was not just a job, but it was also a way of living and an old tradition they did not want to give up. Two brothers from Edgartown which were also fishermen were among the interviewed. They both had a tendency to centralize the diphthongs very frequently (Labov 1972: 30). These two brothers were the last decendants from the old families (Labov 1972: 30). If they were to leave the island, there would be no descendant left in Edgartown and there would be no one to keep up the traditions of the old families. These two brothers are another example that clarifies the importance of the fishing industry. It also clarifies that the Chilmark fishermen as well as the fishermen from Edgartown shared social orientation. They felt deeply connected to the island which was their home. For this reason they also both shared an aversion to the many summer visitors. The summer visitors would invade the cities of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard, and thereby the growing tourism would invade ajor a part in the economy. Though many of the inhabitants appreciate the tourism, the fishermen suffered more and more under economic as well as psychological pressure (Labov 1972: 28). The dependence on summer visitors grew and thereby the independence of the fishermen was reduced. The more inhabitants lived a traditional way of life the more they used the centralization. This fact demonstrates the relationship to the diphthong centralization and the social orientation. Labov learned that another social factor had an outstanding influence on the sound change. He observed attitude towards the island, whether it was positive or negative, was of reason for the usage of this sound change. Labov found out that high school students and their use of the centralization depended on their plan whether or not to stay on the island. He therefore interviewed students from Marthas Vineyard Regional High School. The students who wanted to stay on the island showed a much higher use of the centralized diphthongs than the students who wanted to leave the island after finishing school (Labov 1972: 32). Not only inhabitants from the old families had a high use of the centralization, but Portuguese at the age of thirty-one to forty-five revealed to have a very high use of the sound change in comparison to the other age groups (Labov 1972: 26). The Portuguese of this age group belonged to the third and fourth generation. This generation was the first one which had entirely adopted the ways of life on the island (Labov 1972: 33). They too felt deeply connected to the island, their home. The middle aged Portuguese showed a higher use of centralization than the younger Portuguese, even though the younger Portuguese showed a higher centralization than the young inhabitants with English origin (Labov 1972: 26). This phenomenon can be explained by the attitude towards the island. Most of the young inhabitants with English origin wanted to leave the island opposed to the majority of the young Portuguese who wanted to stay on the island (Labov 1972: 26). This proves that social attitude towards MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard was to blame for the use of the centralization. In relation to the social attitude the term island identity becomes important. To fully understand this term it is important to explain what Ã¢â¬Å"identityÃ¢â¬ really means. To define what Ã¢â¬Å"identityÃ¢â¬ really is, is easier said than done. Identity can be a name of a person but it can also be a way of behaving or other details like gestures or mimics. In Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English by Langenscheidt, there are more than a few explanations. For example: The qualities and attitudes that a person or a group of people have, that make them different from other people (Langenscheidt 2006: 805). The term national/cultural/social identity is listed in this dictionary as well and is defined as a strong feeling of belonging to particular group, race, etc. (Langenscheidt 2006: 805). After having studied Labov`s observations, his results and defining the term identity, it becomes clear that the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard used the sound change to identify themselves. They created an access to their identity with the help of language, and used the centralization as a way to differentiate themselves from summer visitors. This strong bond to their home, the island, is termed by Labov as Ã¢â¬Å"island identityÃ¢â¬ . Island identityÃ¢â¬ describes the use of the centralization as an expression of the strong connection, the inhabitant? s ancestry and their home land. Inhabitants who used this sound change also revealed their attitude and connection to the island. The ones using the sound change were the ones who felt deeply connected and identified themselves with the island. Thereby the sound change became an indicator of the inhabitants attitude. The inhabitants who showed a negative attitude towards the island the ones who did not feel connected to it and wanted to leave, did not use this centralization. They simply did not identify themselves with the island. On behalf of those inhabitants who had a positive attitude towards the island the language variant hold prestige. For some inhabitants the sound change had a higher status than for others, although the speakers were not always aware of the importance of the sound change. This is the reason why there are two types of prestige which are termed overt and covert prestige (Meyerhoff 2006: 37). Overt prestige is linked with language variants that speakers use for special reasons. The speakers using the overt prestige have the motive of sounding, for example, politer or even more educated, which means that they obviously are aware of using that variant (Meyerhoff 2006: 37). For the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard the covert prestige played a central role. The speakers who were using the centralization did not want to sound nicer or better than other people on the island. This pronunciation was not the standard or the general norm but it was based on group identity and the way the inhabitants differentiated themselves from other inhabitants and summer visitors. 3. 0 Conclusion Through the study of Labov, he demonstrated that social factors play a role in how people speak and he also clarified the deep social function language has to define sn identity. Labov? s study was of importance for the social linguistic. The centralized diphthongs observed by Labov were most frequently used by the thirty-one up to forty-five age group and was typically observed used by people who lived and worked on the island, who felt deeply connected to the island. The connection between the positive attitude towards life on the island and the usage of centralization was outstanding. The inhabitants who lived a traditional way of life, had the highest degree of centralization. Since being a fisherman was a traditional occupation, this means that the main part of the inhabitants on the up-island had a higher use of the sound change since that was the place where the fishing industry was based. The down-island was the area where less people were using the centralization. It consist of small towns and these towns were the attraction for the increasing number of summer visitors. Consequently, it can be said that the centralization is an indicator of solidarity. A way of showing where you belong and that you are proud of your home and its traditions. For the inhabitants of MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s Vineyard it was also a way to oppose to the people of the mainland and the new service economy. This sound change made them stand out. By centralizing the diphthongs the inhabitants of island created a way to connect their social identity to language. The language functions as a tool to stick out of the crowd. It is as a reminder of their roots. . 0 Bibliography Deckert, Sharon K. ; Vickers, Caroline H. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 2011. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Labov, William. Sociolinguistic Patterns. 1972. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Langenscheidt. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2006 Meyerhoff, Miriam. Introducing Sociolinguistics. 2006. Abingdon: Routledge Trask, Robert Lawrence. The Dictionary of Historic al and Comparative Linguistics. 2000. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd
Friday, March 6, 2020
good ole days essays The Good Old Days They Were Terrible Today is Monday July the 10th. Today was a very long day, I got up at sunrise and did not get home until after sunset. I am not used to working like this. I came from Germany with my parents in 1887. I was but a little boy when we came here. I was probably between the ages of 5 and 6. My father had a small store in Germany, where he sold food and other goods. I guess it could be called a general store. The store was not doing that much business because the farmers in Germany were going through a lot of agriculture changes. The farmers could not pay the bills and because of this we were going broke. Well, back to today! Today was a very hard day. When I woke up this morning my brothers and I had to feed all of our animals. We had a few chickens, some cows, and a few pigs. The pigs are the worst to feed because you have to walk through all of the mud and muck to get to them. I hate feeding the pigs, I just hate it! The chickens on the other hand were easy to feed becaus e all we had to do was go in the chicken house and put some feed into the feeders. Today also happened to be the day we have to clean out the chicken house. We clean all of the animals pens and houses every Monday. I know it sounds bad, but trust me it is not as bad as having to feed the pigs. When we finished feeding all of the animals, we had to go out into the fields and check on the crops and make sure there were no animals getting into the crops. While my brothers and I were in the fields, we heard the mom ringing the bell. This meant that it was time for us to eat. This is my favorite time of the day. I look forward to this every morning when I wake up. My mom is the best cook in the world. Well, once again dinner was great. When we finished eating dinner, the family would go outside and gather around my father and h ...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Empirical Finance Coursework - Essay Example These risks emerge due to the uncertainties associated with the future. Therefore, investment basically is a risk-inclusive undertaking, and individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ levels of risk taking vary depending on investment instruments and the expected returns. Successful investments must take into account relevant strategies that should aid the realization of the investment objectives. A number of investment strategies in the UK investable universe are evaluated and assessed for their performance: Small Cap vs. Large Cap Portfolios Volatility of returns is the principle determinant of whether a portfolio is a small cap or a large cap. The size of a company is determined by its market capitalization, a situation that further defines that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market cap. A small cap portfolio is defined by a market capitalization that is between 300 million and 2 billion. An amount less than this will enter the portfolio into a lesser marker cap, normally referred to as the micro-cap. Small cap portf olio is characterized by high volatility in the market, and the price of the stock keeps fluctuations due to the underlying market uncertainties. Large cap portfolios on the other hand are the direct opposite of small cap portfolios. Large cap portfolios are less volatile in the market, and the prices of these stocks are therefore relatively constant over time (Fama and French, 2011, p.46). Investors that prefer less volatile portfolio often opt for the large cap portfolios. However, this does not rule out risk prevalence in investment. Large cap portfolios are characterized by market capitalization of about 10 billion and above. This kind of portfolio experiences hardships in in and out trade activities. As a result, price swings are minimized, leading to the realization of consistency in its price. Value vs. Growth Portfolios Investors have different motives for investment. While some opt to invest in value stocks, others prefer growth stocks. These stocks share some common charac teristics, but their distinguishing features outline the outstanding difference between the two stocks. The valuing of stocks is done with regard to market trends, incorporating risks and benefits to the value of the stocks. Investors prefer undervalued stocks, so that once the prices of the stocks changes, they are in a position to reap huge investment returns. Value stocks are depict the flowing features: less than 10 % price earnings ratio, less than 1 price to earnings growth, current assets that are twice the current liabilities, matching debt and equity and share prices that are at par with the tangible book value or even less (Fama and French, 2011, p.53). Growth stocks are defined by their outstanding feature of expansion and ability to generate more and more returns with time. They are referred to as growth stocks because they have the ability to diversify the underlying portfolio. Growth stocks are characterized by a growth rate that is strong and reliable. This is to say that the portfolio remains vibrant and beneficial over a long period of time. It is important to account for the fact that different companies grow at different speeds and rates, and it essential that an investor be accommodative in regard to growth portfolios. Equity returns are also strong with growth stocks. Company-industry comparison is used to determine the strength of the stock returns. Growth stocks are characterized by per share earnings that surpass the industryÃ¢â¬â¢